PDF | This paper analyses weights from the site of Birka, the main centre for trade in the Lake Malaren Valley during the Viking Age, as well as its | Find, read. Carolingian-Ottonian disc brooches: early Christian symbols in Viking age Denmark. Maria Panum Baastrup, Uta von Freeden (Editor), Herwig Friesinger. Inhalt: This carefully crafted ebook: "Eric Brighteyes (A Novel of Viking Age Iceland)" is formatted for your eReader with a functional and detailed table of contents.
878 Vikings: Viking Age Expansion (EN)Aristocratic burial in late Viking Age Denmark: Custom, regionality, conversion. Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/proceeding › Book. Viking Age Exhibition duration: August 23 – September 21, Inspired by Norse mythology and referring to the gallerists' ancestry, Japanese artist Shintaro. In the case of Viking Age England, local English kings were unable to monopolize violence and defend their realms against competing Viking.
Viking Age Art of the Viking Age VideoThe Viking Age Explained
See Did Vikings Wear Chainmail? It is also important to note that Viking axes were not used exclusively for swinging at enemy forces either.
They were Middle Age multi-taskers that performed a variety of functions like:. Although the Vikings used axes of various shapes and sizes in battle, two designs were noteworthy during the height of the Viking Age for being highly wieldable and especially lethal:.
This weapon was so instrumental to Viking military campaigns that the personal bodyguards of King Harold II were armed with them.
Eventually, opposing armies saw the advantages of this weapon, and they began arming themselves with similar armament the Dane axe also came to be known as the English long axe.
The Dane axe was designed to be wielded with two hands, and its head was forged from thin but strong metal, resulting in a surprisingly lightweight weapon that could be swung with a great amount of control.
Still, it was perfectly capable of delivering a fatal wound with a single blow from its razor-sharp edge. First and foremost, with its elongated edge that dropped down well below the butt or poll, a bearded axe presented a longer cutting edge as measured from toe to heel.
In the hands of a capable Viking warrior it could also be wielded single-handed , it could slice, slash, and chop with deadly force. The unique beard design also served a defensive purpose.
As the most affordable and functional implement around, virtually every Viking male except for slaves owned an axe. Aside from being a highly effective weapon for the Viking style of combat, axes served other purposes that were equally vital to the Viking way of life:.
Therefore, a good, sharp axe was a necessity of life for daily activities like felling trees and chopping wood for building materials and to burn as fuel for cooking and warmth.
During Rollo's baptism Robert I of France stood as his godfather. The Scandinavian expansion included Danish and Norwegian as well as Swedish elements, all under the leadership of Rollo.
The Normans conquered England and southern Italy in 11th century, and played a key role in the Crusades. In , according to an account by the Norman monk Dudo of Saint-Quentin , a Viking fleet, probably under Björn Ironside and Hastein , landed at the Ligurian port of Luni and sacked the city.
The Vikings then moved another 60 miles down the Tuscan coast to the mouth of the Arno , sacking Pisa and then, following the river upstream, also the hill-town of Fiesole above Florence , among other victories around the Mediterranean including in Sicily and North Africa.
After , when the Vikings set up a permanent base at the mouth of the Loire river, they could strike as far as northern Spain. In some of their raids they were crushed either by Asturian or Cordoban armies.
These Vikings were Hispanicised in all Christian kingdoms, while they kept their ethnic identity and culture in Al-Andalus. In , a Viking fleet entered the river Minho and sacked the episcopal city of Tui Galicia ; no new bishop was appointed until In , many dozens of drakkars appeared in the "Mar da Palha" "the Sea of Straw", mouth of the Tagus river.
They left after 13 days, following a resistance led by Alah Ibn Hazm and the city's inhabitants. Another raid was attempted in , without success.
The Viking-Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast.
While harsh, the microclimates along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland, until the climate changed for the worse with the Little Ice Age around They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland , near L'Anse aux Meadows.
Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years. The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.
The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.
The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle.
They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly as possible before a counter-offensive could be launched.
Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers. The ships were agile, and light enough to be carried over land from one river system to another.
The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes, resulting in inferior vessels.
While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.
When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets.
While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents. When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.
The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems.
A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.
In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Together with an increasing centralisation of government in the Scandinavian countries, the old system of leidang — a fleet mobilisation system, where every skipreide ship community had to maintain one ship and a crew — was discontinued as a purely military institution, as the duty to build and man a ship soon was converted into a tax.
The Norwegian leidang was called under Haakon Haakonson for his expedition to Scotland during the Scottish—Norwegian War, and the last recorded calling of it was in However, already by the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.
This led to the defeat of longship navies in most subsequent naval engagements—e. Exactly how the Vikings navigated the open seas with such success is unclear.
While some evidence points to the use of calcite "sunstones" to find the sun's location, modern reproductions of Viking "sky-polarimetric" navigation have found these sun compasses to be highly inaccurate, and not usable in cloudy or foggy weather.
The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope. It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century.
One important centre of trade was at Hedeby. Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.
A genetic study published at bioRxiv in July and in Nature in September examined the population genomics of the Viking Age. It was found that there was a notable foreign gene flow into Scandinavia in the years preceding the Viking Age and during the Viking Age itself.
This gene flow entered Denmark and eastern Sweden , from which it spread into the rest of Scandinavia. The study also found that despite close cultural similarities, there were distinct genetic differences between regional populations in the Viking Age.
These differences have persisted into modern times. Inland areas were found to be more genetically homogenous than coastal areas and islands such as Öland and Gotland.
These islands were probably important trade settlements. The Vikings were found to have left a profound genetic imprint in the areas they settled, which has persisted into modern times with e.
The study also showed that some local people of Scotland were buried as Vikings and may have taken on Viking identities. The genetic data from these areas affirmed conclusions previously drawn from historical and archaeological evidence.
During, and as a result of the Viking Age, Scandinavia moved from a loose coexistence of tribes and petty kingdoms to the three Nordic countries that still exist today.
The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.
The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms.
Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.
There are more than 1, Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire within the former boundaries of the Danelaw : over end in -by , the Scandinavian word for "village"—for example Grimsby, Naseby and Whitby ;  many others end in -thorpe "farm" , -thwaite "clearing" , and -toft "homestead".
The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.
And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars, and seized all the treasures of the holy church.
They killed some of the brothers; some they took away with them in fetters; many they drove out, naked and loaded with insults; and some they drowned in the sea.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 December Contemporary countries.
Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Rituals and worship. Main article: Viking expansion.
Main article: Scandinavian Scotland. Main article: Kingdom of the Isles. Main article: Kvenland. Main article: Viking Age in Estonia.
Main article: Curonians. Further information: Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages. Norse people. Scandinavia History. WikiProject Norse history and culture.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April Main article: Viking raids in the Rhineland.
Main article: L'Anse aux Meadows. Further information: Longship and Viking Age arms and armour. See also: Norse paganism and Norse mythology.
This section is empty. Main article: History of Scandinavia. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term ' Viking ' is derived from the Old Norse vik, a bay, and means 6 one who haunts a bay, creek or fjord 1 '.
In the 9th and 10th centuries it came to be used more especially of those warriors who left their homes in Scandinavia and made raids on the chief European countries.
Scandinavians and the English in the Viking Age. University of Cambridge. The Viking period is, therefore, best defined as the period when Scandinavians played a large role in the British Isles and western Europe as raiders and conquerors.
It is also the period in which Scandinavians settled in many of the areas they conquered, and in the Atlantic islands Women in the Viking Age.
International contact is the key to the Viking Age. In Scandinavian history this period is distinct because large numbers of Scandinavian people left their homelands and voyaged abroad The period is thus defined by the impact the Scandinavians had on the world around them.
The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings. Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home.
Who Were the Vikings? Early Viking Raids In A. Conquests in the British Isles By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids.
Viking Settlements: Europe and Beyond Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.
Danish Dominance The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.
The Vikings Raid England. Life of a Viking. The Vikings. Globetrotting Vikings: Crusading to Jerusalem The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.
Did Vikings Use Crystals to Navigate? Globetrotting Vikings: The Quest for Constantinople The epic voyages of the Vikings to the British Isles, Iceland, North America and points west tend to obscure the fact that the Scandinavian warriors also ventured far to the east across Europe and parts of Asia.
John Cabot John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.
Vikings Had Mice, Did Travel From the late eighth century to the mids, Vikings from Norway established settlements in parts of the northern and western British Isles, including Scotland and regions of Ireland.
Viking art is visually distinct from contemporaneous cultures as traded objects and integrated customs demonstrate , and represents a unique way of thinking about the world.
The animal motifs that frequently embellished objects are actually a continuation of artistic traditions from previous periods. The ribbon-animal was typically pictured as a highly abstracted creature with an elongated body and simplified features, appearing individually and in pairs.
In contrast, the gripping beast—a fantastical creature with clearly defined limbs—was anchored to the borders of designs and surrounding creatures.
Other animal motifs developed throughout the period, and human figures were also present. These elements, which are thought to have had particular assigned meanings, are central to the categorization of Viking Age art styles.
The Oseberg style was popular throughout mainland Scandinavia. Some of the most remarkable wood carving from the Viking Age was created in this style.
Featuring carvings of the ribbon-animal and gripping-beast motifs in fluid combinations on its prow, it served as an elite funerary vessel for two women.
The Oseberg style shows a strong interplay between zoomorphic and geometric patterns that continues artistic traditions predating the Viking Age.
In Oseberg art, animal motifs—which included birds, human faces sometimes thought to be masks such as we see on the Oseberg burial cart , and the gripping beast—appear short and stocky, nearly equal in size, have rounded eyes, and tendril-like limbs.
These schematic figures are situated within fields that divide surfaces into clear segments and emphasize the balance and organization of images.
With mixtures of high- and low-relief carvings flooding their surfaces in tightly interlacing ornament, very little background is visible. The Oseberg ship burial included carved wooden posts, decorated sleds , and an oak wagon that may have been made by master craftsmen from a nearby workshop.
Although the purpose of these objects remain unclear, their detailed carvings demonstrate advanced woodworking skills. Also included was a set of tapestries that, despite their poor condition, are believed to depict battle scenes and a religious procession.
They illustrate many objects found in the grave, indicating that material goods were important for performing customs in life and in death.
Overlapping with the Oseberg style is the Borre style, which was also popular on the mainland. However, unlike the Oseberg style, Borre artistic conventions spread to the British Isles and the Baltic region as the Norsemen traveled both East and West.
Exchanges between local and foreign artistic customs can be seen on objects found in these areas with less overt characteristics appearing in the British Isles and more emphatic characteristics appearing to the east of the Baltic Sea.
Forms are arranged in closed compositions with tight, knot-like interlacing that almost fully obscures the background.
Animal motifs appear comparatively more naturalistic, with squat, relaxed bodies. Spirals are introduced to represent hip joints, and figures may be reduced to decorative heads or appear as fully in-the-round forms.
On a silver disc-brooch from Gotland, a series of animal and human figures protrude outward into space.
It is seen on small metal objects, such as the gold spur from Verne Kloster, and seems to have influenced stone carving traditions on the Isle of Man and in northwest England.
This gold spur allowed a rider to control the movements of a horse. Sitting chronologically between the Borre style and the soon-to-be-discussed Mammen style, the Jellinge style is a malleable one.
It appears on a diverse body of objects and can share features with the previous and subsequent styles, leaving it difficult to define as a separate movement.
Despite this mishap, this unique spelling helps art historians differentiate the style from the place. Within their bodies are single rows of beading dot-like metal forms and their feet resemble mitts.
Lappets, the protrusions that look like ponytails, extend from their heads, distinguishing them from creatures of the Borre style. Compositions in this style open up and expand, with the backgrounds becoming more visible.
The anatomy of animal and human figures is simpler, with bodies portrayed as solid masses defined by individual or double contour lines.